* Use the overhead projector or smart board to display the fishbone map template.
Introduce the fishbone map as a kind of semantic web that highlights
relationships among ideas. Since the text structure of this article is
cause-effect. The fishbone map is an
appropriate choice. Point out features of the fishbone map, showing how
main ideas stem from the root cause, which in turn points to the effect.
*Ask students specific questions about the cause/effect article that you provide. List the
students' responses as
the effect on the fishbone map. (Save the root cause, which requires
generalization, for the second session.)
*Ask students to silently skim the entire article.
Model with a think-aloud to analyze the first paragraph as follows:"Listen to how I think aloud as we read this first paragraph. Based
on the introductory paragraph, I expect it to address one aspect.Read the first paragraph aloud (or have a student read it aloud).Think aloud: "I wonder what this
paragraph addresses."On a plain transparency and in your own words, jot down a list of
details from the first paragraph. Students should take note of
the details on their own copies as you write them on the overhead
projector or smart board.Help students identify the pattern of details that leads to the main
idea. Ask students for suggestions on phrasing the main idea and the
supporting details.Omit any ideas that were interesting, but not essential to the main
idea. Emphasize the goal, which is to state the author's main idea
succinctly using your own words.
Invite students to analyze the process that you modeled, and list
the essential elements on the board as they are named:Read the paragraph to get an overview Reread the paragraph to identify key points
List key points briefly in your own words
Omit elaborate details for the fishbone map
Top this list with a title, such as "Criteria for Summarizing," since
each part of the fishbone map is actually a mini-summary of each
paragraph. Ask students if they have any questions about the fishbone
map or the criteria for summarizing. Emphasize that the paragraph you
modeled could have been mapped using different words, but the substance
or ideas would have been the same.
*Transition to partner work, using the think-share-pair strategy.
Have pairs of students read paragraph 2 and analyze the paragraph using
the process you just modeled and described. Circulate and assist
students as they read, highlight details, and generalize to arrive at
the main idea for the paragraph.
*Have several pairs of students share their main ideas for paragraph
2. Record a representative phrase on the overhead transparency or smart board of the fishbone
map template as Main Idea 2.
*Ask students, "What do paragraphs 1 and 2 have in common as they
relate to the reasons. Explain that when authors
carefully convey a cause-effect relationship, they often repeat the main
idea for emphasis so that the reader "hears" it again. A repeated
reference signals that an idea is important to the author. The repeated
idea will be important to include in a summary.
*Point out that the fishbone map shows how the two paragraphs relate
to the root cause and to each other, since they are joined at the
"spine" of the fish.
*Have students reflect in their learning journals on the following
- What did you learn about the reasons within the article?
- How can a fishbone map help you understand and clarify the main
ideas and key points of a cause-effect text?
Articulate for students the purpose of this session:
- To identify the main ideas for the other paragraphs within the article
- To note repeated references, as well as connections among the main
*Refer students to their fishbone maps, with Main Ideas 1 and 2
completed. Have students review what they learned and how they arrived
at the main idea for each paragraph (e.g., by noting details, looking
for patterns, and using their own words).
*Divide the class into cooperative learning partners.
*Assign one of the remaining paragraphs. Frame this work session with a time
limit-partners must be ready to present their main ideas to the another set of partners within 15 minutes.
*Have the set of 4's present for each paragraph, add Main Ideas for other paragraphs to the overhead transparency or smart board of the fishbone map template.
Students should also add these main ideas to their own fishbone maps if different from their information.
*Conclude Session 2 by having students name ways in which each of the
main ideas is connected to the other main ideas.
Have students reflect in their journals by responding to the
- What did you learn about the topic within the article?
strategies did you learn to help you understand and remember
- In what ways do you think you could use these
cause/effect strategies outside a
or Write to Summarize