## 3. Student Learning Map

• Topic:Forces, Motion, and Work
• Subject(s):Science
• Days:20
Key Learning: A relationship exists between energy and work.
Unit Essential Question(s):
 How can forces combine, become unbalanced and balanced; work on contact and at a distance?
Concept: Waves
Concept: Types of Forces
Concept: Newtons Laws of Motion
Lesson Essential Question(s):

How are frequency and wavelength related? (A)
What factors alter acceleration? (A)
What are waves and how are they affected by forces? (A)
Lesson Essential Question(s):

How are balanced and unbalanced forces created?

(ET)
What is the difference between a contact and distance force? (A)
Lesson Essential Question(s):

How are Newton's laws of motion similar? How are they different?

(ET)

Refer to Chapter 22. *Must refer to supplemental information resources for "Waves" concept (Internet; Chapter 5 in Glencoe Science Voyages, etc). textbook, demonstrations, worksheets, video, multimedia presentations

Resources:

Acquisition Lesson:

Extending Thinking Lesson:

## Vocabulary Report

• *wave -

the movement of energy through matter of space

• Newton's 1st law of motion -

a scientific law that says: An object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force

• force -

a quality that tends to produce movement or acceleration of a body in the direction of its application; a push or pull (FCAT)

• wavelength -

the distance between crests of a wave (FCAT)

• Newton's 2nd law of motion -

a scientific law that says: The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the force applied. Expressed mathematically, Newton's second law is stated: Force= mass X acceleration, or force= m x a

• net force -

the overall force acting on an object

• Newton's 3rd law of motion -

a scientific law that says: When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first

• inertia -

the property of an object, due to its mass, by which it resists any change in its position unless overcome by force (FCAT)

• amplitude -

in any periodic function <e.g., a wave> the maximum absolute variation of the function (FCAT)

• balanced force -

when a net force is 0 Newtons

• levers -

a type of simple machine; consists of a rigid bar that pivots about a fulcrum, used to transmit and enhance power or motion (FCAT)

• crest -

the peak or highest point on a wave (FCAT)

• simple machines screw -

a types of simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder (FCAT)

• trough -

the lowest point on a wave (FCAT)

• unbalanced force -

when the net force on an object is greater than 0 Newtons

• frequency -

the number of cycles or waves per unit time (FCAT)

• gravity -

the observed effect of the force of gravitation (FCAT)

• electrical force -

is the force of attraction or repulsion between charged particles

• inclined plane -

a types of simple machine; a slanted surface that makes it easier to move a mass from a lower point to higher point (FCAT)

• magnetic force -

force exerted by magnetized objects

• pulley -

a types of simple machine; a circular lever, usually a wheel with a groove where a rope can be placed and used to change the direction of a force (FCAT)

• wedge -

a type of simple machine that consists of a inclined plane used to separate two objects (FCAT)

• buoyant force -

the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a liquid

• wheel and axle -

a type of simple machine that consists of a rod driven through the center of a cylinder that is allowed to rotate freely, yielding a mechanical advantage equal to the cylinder's diameteer (FCAT)

• motion -

an object's change of position over time

• work -

the transfer of energy to an object by using a force that causes the object to move in the direction of the force

• compound machine -

combinations of two or more simple machines

a number that tells how many times a machine multiplies force

• power -

the rate at which work is done or energy is transformed

• mechanical efficiency -

a quantity, usually expressed as a percentage, that measures the ratio of work output to work input in a machine

• contact forces friction -

a force that opposes the relative motion of two material surfaces in contact with one another (FCAT)

• tension -

when a force pulls against the materials that make up an object

• buoancy -

upward force that is exerted on an object, causing the object to float

• distance forces gravity -

the force of attraction between objects that is due to the masses of the object

• magnetic -

having the property of attracting iron and certain other materials by virtue of surrounding field of force (FCAT)

• electric -

a force of attraction or repulsion between charged particles

• Newton -

the SI unit of force (N)

• Joule -

the unit used to express energy; equivalent to the amount of work done by a force of 1 N acting through a distance of 1 m in the direction of the force (symbol, J)

• Watt -

the unit used to express power; equivalent to a joule per second (symbol, W)