3. Student Learning Map

  • Topic:Forces, Motion, and Work
  • Subject(s):Science
  • Days:20
  • Grade(s):7
Key Learning: A relationship exists between energy and work.
Unit Essential Question(s):
 
 
How can forces combine, become unbalanced and balanced; work on contact and at a distance?
   
Concept: Waves
Concept: Types of Forces
Concept: Newtons Laws of Motion
Lesson Essential Question(s):

How are frequency and wavelength related? (A)
What factors alter acceleration? (A)
What are waves and how are they affected by forces? (A)
Lesson Essential Question(s):

How are balanced and unbalanced forces created?

(ET)
What is the difference between a contact and distance force? (A)
Lesson Essential Question(s):

How are Newton's laws of motion similar? How are they different?

(ET)
Additional Information:

Refer to Chapter 22. *Must refer to supplemental information resources for "Waves" concept (Internet; Chapter 5 in Glencoe Science Voyages, etc). textbook, demonstrations, worksheets, video, multimedia presentations

Resources:

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Acquisition Lesson:

Extending Thinking Lesson:

Vocabulary Report

  • *wave -

    the movement of energy through matter of space

  • Newton's 1st law of motion -

    a scientific law that says: An object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force

  • force -

    a quality that tends to produce movement or acceleration of a body in the direction of its application; a push or pull (FCAT)

  • wavelength -

    the distance between crests of a wave (FCAT)

  • Newton's 2nd law of motion -

    a scientific law that says: The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the force applied. Expressed mathematically, Newton's second law is stated: Force= mass X acceleration, or force= m x a

  • net force -

    the overall force acting on an object

  • Newton's 3rd law of motion -

    a scientific law that says: When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first

  • inertia -

    the property of an object, due to its mass, by which it resists any change in its position unless overcome by force (FCAT)

  • amplitude -

    in any periodic function <e.g., a wave> the maximum absolute variation of the function (FCAT)

  • balanced force -

    when a net force is 0 Newtons

  • levers -

    a type of simple machine; consists of a rigid bar that pivots about a fulcrum, used to transmit and enhance power or motion (FCAT)

  • crest -

    the peak or highest point on a wave (FCAT)

  • simple machines screw -

    a types of simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder (FCAT)

  • trough -

    the lowest point on a wave (FCAT)

  • unbalanced force -

    when the net force on an object is greater than 0 Newtons

  • frequency -

    the number of cycles or waves per unit time (FCAT)

  • gravity -

    the observed effect of the force of gravitation (FCAT)

  • electrical force -

    is the force of attraction or repulsion between charged particles

  • inclined plane -

    a types of simple machine; a slanted surface that makes it easier to move a mass from a lower point to higher point (FCAT)

  • magnetic force -

    force exerted by magnetized objects

  • pulley -

    a types of simple machine; a circular lever, usually a wheel with a groove where a rope can be placed and used to change the direction of a force (FCAT)

  • wedge -

    a type of simple machine that consists of a inclined plane used to separate two objects (FCAT)

  • buoyant force -

    the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a liquid

  • wheel and axle -

    a type of simple machine that consists of a rod driven through the center of a cylinder that is allowed to rotate freely, yielding a mechanical advantage equal to the cylinder's diameteer (FCAT)

  • motion -

    an object's change of position over time

  • work -

    the transfer of energy to an object by using a force that causes the object to move in the direction of the force

  • compound machine -

    combinations of two or more simple machines

  • mechanical advantage -

    a number that tells how many times a machine multiplies force

  • power -

    the rate at which work is done or energy is transformed

  • mechanical efficiency -

    a quantity, usually expressed as a percentage, that measures the ratio of work output to work input in a machine

  • contact forces friction -

    a force that opposes the relative motion of two material surfaces in contact with one another (FCAT)

  • tension -

    when a force pulls against the materials that make up an object

  • buoancy -

    upward force that is exerted on an object, causing the object to float

  • distance forces gravity -

    the force of attraction between objects that is due to the masses of the object

  • magnetic -

    having the property of attracting iron and certain other materials by virtue of surrounding field of force (FCAT)

  • electric -

    a force of attraction or repulsion between charged particles

  • Newton -

    the SI unit of force (N)

  • Joule -

    the unit used to express energy; equivalent to the amount of work done by a force of 1 N acting through a distance of 1 m in the direction of the force (symbol, J)

  • Watt -

    the unit used to express power; equivalent to a joule per second (symbol, W)